essay writing and harvard referencing guide

Harvard referencing guide

Essay writing

I found these two useful guides with some points that may help you structure your writing

1- Download: Art Theory Essay Writing Guide

2- Download: Writing-TertiaryEssayWriting-booklet

pages 14-15: Essay structure and argument
All essays require an introduction, a body and a conclusion. The introduction orients the reader to your topic and approach.
Introducing your essay
The introduction serves to set the focus of the essay and provide a map for your reader. Whether you write it first or later, you should review it and make changes after you have completed the main body and conclusion of the essay. The introduction should focus a reader’s attention on the central theme of an essay. It should clarify how you intend to interpret or limit the question and give a clear, but brief, overview of your argument and the main points supporting it. You may also need to make it clear how you are defining key terms in the question.
Paragraphs are an important structural element of good writing. Each paragraph should develop a point or topic – for this reason they are the foundations upon which your argument is built. A paragraph should include a topic sentence, which states the main idea of that paragraph.                                                                                                       A topic sentence introduces the paragraph’s main idea. In the ensuing paragraphs you then elaborate and provide supporting evidence for that idea. a good topic sentence contains only one idea and sums up what the paragraph is about.
Other sentences elaborate the topic of your paragraph by giving supporting details, facts, examples and quotations. Every sentence in a paragraph must be clearly related to the main idea.

Harvard referencing

1-Download: University of Westminter own Harvard referencing guide

2-Additional guidance to reference art work and electronic sources in your essay:

2-1 Referencing artwork

format of key elements:

Artist’s family name, Initial(s) year of production, Title of Artwork, material, held at location of gallery, museum etc.



Example of in-text reference

The presentation of Pompeii by Levin (1995) is a classic …

Example of entry in reference list

Levin, A 1995, Levin-1, photograph, Pompeii Forum Project Archival Projects: General Views, accessed 9/1/2007,

Photograph Unpublished


The photo of the protea … (Smith 2006).

Example of entry in reference list

Smith, G 2006, ‘Flowers in our garden 4’, photograph, in possession of the author, Shellharbour, NSW

b-for audiovisual work

format of key elements:

Title year of production/broadcast, format, Publisher, Place of Recording, day and month of broadcast.


Example of in-text reference

Director, Pellizzari, frames the narrative from … (Rabbit on the Moon 1987).

Example of entry in reference list

Rabbit on the Moon 1987, videorecording, Australian Film and Television.


Example of in-text reference

Discipline involves … (Positive Discipline 2006).

Example of entry in reference list

Positive Discipline: A Creative Alternative for Parents and Teachers 2006, DVD, Meridian Education Corporation, Bloomington, Illinois.

-Web Video

Example of in-text reference

Sadiaraval (2006) pans across images of the Himalayan Mountains and …

Example of entry in reference list

Sadiaraval 2006, Sunrise on Himalayas, accessed 15/11/2006,


Example of in-text reference

The film, An Inconvenient Truth (2006), suggests a …

Example of entry in reference list

An Inconvenient Truth 2006, film, Paramount Classics and Participant Productions.


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